So far my life has been rather extraordinary in that through great underserved luck1 I have been present at, or nearby to, many of the defining technological advances in computer science, Artificial Intelligence, and robotics, that now in 2021 are starting to dominate our world. I knew and rubbed shoulders2 with many of the greats, those who founded AI, robotics, and computer science, and the world wide web. My big regret nowadays is that often I have questions for those who have passed on, and I didn’t think to ask them any of these questions, even as I saw them and said hello to them on a daily basis.
This short blog post is about the origin of languages for describing tasks in automation, in particular for industrial robot arms. Three people who have passed away, but were key players were Doug Ross, Victor Scheinman, and Richard (Lou) Paul, not as well known as some other tech stars, but very influential in their fields. Here, I must rely not on questions to them that I should have asked in the past, but from personal recollections and online sources.
Doug Ross3 had worked on the first MIT computer, Whirlwind, and then in the mid nineteen fifties he turned to the numerical control of three and five axis machine tools–the tools that people use to cut metal parts in complex shapes. There was a requirement to make such parts, many with curved surfaces, with far higher accuracy than a human operator could possibly produce. Ross developed a “programming language” APT (for Automatically Programmed Tool) for this purpose.
Here is an APT program from Wikipedia.
There are no branches (the GOTO is a command to move the tool) or conditionals, it is just a series of commands to move the cutting tool. It does provide geometrical calculations using tangents to circles (TANTO) etc.
APT programs were compiled and executed on a computer–an enormously expensive machine at the time. But cost was not the primary issue. APT was developed at the MIT Servo Mechanism Lab, and that lab was the home of building mechanical guidance systems for flying machines, such as ICBMs, and later the craft for the manned space program flights of the sixties.
Machine tools were existing devices that had been used by humans. But now came new machines, never used by humans. By the end of that same decade work was proceeding by two visionaries, one technical and one business, working in partnership, to develop a new class of machine, automatic from the start, the industrial robot arm.
The first arm, the Unimate, developed by George Devol and Joe Engelberger4 at their company Unimation, was installed in a GM factory in New Jersey in 1961, and used vacuum tubes rather than transistors, analog servos for its hydraulics rather than the digital servos we would use today, and simply recorded a sequence of positions to which the robot arm should go. Computers were too expensive for such commercial robots, so the arm had to be carefully built to not require them, and there was therefore no “language” used to control the arms. Unimates were used for spot welding and to lift heavy castings into and out of specialized machines. The robot arms did the same thing again and again, without any decisions making taking place.
In the late sixties, mechanical engineer Victor Scheinman at the Stanford AI Lab designed what became known as the Stanford Arm. They were controlled at SAIL by a PDP-8 minicomputer, and were among the very first electric digital arms. Here is John McCarthy at a terminal in front of two Stanford Arms, and a steerable COHU TV camera:
In the five years (over a period of seven years total) that I was a member of the Hand-Eye group at SAIL I never once saw John come near the robots. Here is a museum picture of the Gold Arm. It has five revolute joints and one linear axis.
The only contemporary electric digital arm was Freddy at Edinburgh University.
While the Stanford Arms (the Gold Arm, the Blue Arm, and the Red Arm) were intended to assemble real mechanical components as might be found in real products, Freddy was designed from the start to work only in a world of wooden blocks.
There was actually a fourth Stanford Arm built, the Green Arm. It had a longer reach and was used at JPL as part of a test bed for a Mars mission that never happened. In this 1978 photo the arm was controlled by a PDP-11 mini computer on a mobile platform.
The Stanford Arms were way ahead of their time and could measure and apply forces–the vast majority of industrial robotic arms can still not do that today. They were intended to be used to explore the possibility of automatic assembly of complex objects. The long term intent (still not anywhere near met in practice even today) was that an AI system would figure out how to do the assembly and execute it. This was such a hard problem that first (and still today in practice) it was decided to try to write programs to assemble parts.
Richard (Lou) Paul, who left the Hand-Eye group right before I arrived there in 1977 (I knew him for decades after that), developed the first programming language for control of a robot arm trying to do something as sophisticated as assembly. It was called WAVE. I suspect the way it came out was all based on a nerdy pun, or two, and it even today impacts the way industrial robots are controlled. Besides the language, Paul also developed inverse kinematics techniques, which today are known as IK solvers, and used in almost all robots.
By the late sixties the big US AI labs all had PDP-10 mainframes made by Digital Equipment Corporation in Massachusetts5. The idea was that Paul’s language would be processed by the PDP-10, and then the program would largely run on the PDP-8. But what form should the language take? Well, the task was assembly, as in assembling mechanical parts. But many programs in those days were written in machine specific “assembly language” for assembling instructions for the computer, one by one, into binary. Well, why not make the assembly language look like the PDP-10 assembly language??? And the MOVE instruction which moved data around in the PDP-10 would be repurposed to instead move the arm about. Funny, and fully in tune with the ethos at the Stanford and MIT AI Labs at the time.
I cannot anywhere find either an online or offline copy of Paul’s 1972 Ph.D. thesis. It had numbers STAN-CS-311 and Stanford AIM-177 (for AI Memo)–if anyone can find it please let me know. [[See the comment from Bill Idsardi and Holly Yanco below. I downloaded and read the free version and have some updates based on that in my reply to Professor Yanco.]] So here I will rely on a later publication by Bob Bolles and Richard Paul from 1973, describing a program written in WAVE. It is variously called STAN-CS-396 or AIM-220 — the available scan from Stanford is quite low quality, rescued from a microfilm scan from years ago. I have retyped a fragment of a program to assemble a water pump that is in the document so that it is easier to read.
For anyone who has seen assembler language this looks familiar, with the way the label L1 is specified and the comments follow a semi-colon, with one instruction per line. The program control flow even uses the same instructions as PDP-10 assembly language, with AOJ for add one and jump, SKIPE and SKIPN for skip the next instruction if the register is zero, or not. The only difference I can see is that there is just a single implicit register for the AOJ instructions, and that the skip instructions refer to a location (23) where some force information is cached (perhaps I have this correct, perhaps not…). This program seems to be grasping a pin, then going to a hole, and then dithering around until it can successfully insert the pin in the hole. It is keeping a count of the number of attempts, though this code fragment does not use that count, and seems to be checking at the end whether it dropped the pin by accident (by opening the gripper and closing it just a little again to see if a force is felt as would be the case if the pin remains in the same place), though there is no code to act on a dropped pin. Elsewhere in the document it is explained how the coordinates P and T are trained, by moving the arm to the desired location and typing “HERE P” or “HERE T” — when the arms were not powered they could be moved around my hand.
People soon realized that a pun on computer assembly language was not powerful enough to do real work. By late 1974 Raphael Finkel, Russell Taylor, Robert Bolles, Richard Paul, and Jerome Feldman had developed a new language AL, for Assembly Language, an Algol-ish language based on SAIL (Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language) which ran on the lab’s PDP-10. Shahid Mujtaba and my officemate Ron Goldman continued to develop AL for a number of years, as seen in this manual. They along with Maria Gini and Pina Gini also worked on the POINTY system which made gathering coordinates like P and T in the example above much easier.
Meanwhile Victor Schienman had spent a year at the MIT AI Lab, where he had developed a new small force controlled six revolute joint arm called the Vicarm. He left one copy at MIT6 and returned to Stanford with a second copy.
I think it was in 1978 when he came to a robotics class that I was in at Stanford, carrying both his Vicarm and a case with a PDP-11 in it. He set them up on a table top and showed how he could program the Vicarm in a language based on Basic, a much simpler language than Algol/SAIL. He called the language VAL, for Victor’s AL. Also, remember that this was before the Apple II (and before anyone had even heard of Apple, founded just the year before) and before the PC–simply carrying in a computer and setting it up in front of the class was quite a party trick in itself!!
Also in 1978 Victor sold a version of the arm, about twice the size of the Vicarm, that came to be known as the PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) to Engelberger’s company Unimation. It became a big selling product using the language VAL. This was the first commercial robot that was all electric, and the first one with a programming language. Over the years various versions of this arm were sold that ranged in mass from 13Kg to 600Kg.
The following handful of years saw an explosion of programming languages, usually unique to each manufacturer, and usually based on an existing programming language. Pascal was a popular basis at the time. Here is a comprehensive survey from 1986 showing just how quickly things moved!
By 2008 I thought that it was time we tried to go beyond the stop gap measure of having programming languages for robot arms, and return to the original dream from around 1970 at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab. I founded Rethink Robotics. We built and shipped many thousands of robot arms to be used in factories. The first was Baxter, and the second was Sawyer. In the linked video you can see Sawyer measuring the external forces applied to it, and trying to keep the resultant force to zero by complying with the force and moving. In this way the engineer in the video is able to effortlessly move the robot arm to anywhere she likes. This is a first step to being able to show the robot where things are in the environment, as in the “HERE P” or “HERE T” examples with WAVE, and later POINTY. Here is a photo of me with a Sawyer on the left and an older Baxter on the right.
Back in 1986 I had published a paper on the “subsumption architecture” (you can see the lab memo version of that paper here). Over time this control system for robots came to be known as the “behavior based approach” and in 1990 I wrote the Behavior Language which was used by many students in my lab, and at the company iRobot, which I had co-founded in 1990. In around 2000 an MIT student, Damian Isla, refactored my approach and developed what are now called Behavior Trees. Most video games are now written using Behavior Trees in what are the two most popular authoring platforms, Unity and Unreal.
For version five of our robot software platform at Rethink Robotics, called Intera, for interactive, we represented the “program” for the robot as a Behavior Tree. While it was possible to author a graphical behavior tree (there was no text version of a tree) using a graphical user interface, it was also possible to simply show the robot what you wanted it to do, and an AI system made inferences about what was intended, sometimes asked you to fill in some values using simple controls on the arm of the robot, and automatically generated a Behavior Tree. It was up to the human showing the robot the task whether they ever looked at or edited that tree. Here you can see Intera 5 running not only on our robot Sawyer, but also on the two other commercial robots at the time that had force sensing. When my old officemate and developer of AL, Ron Goldman, saw this system he proclaimed something like “it’s POINTY on steroids!”.
Baxter and Sawyer were the first safe robots that did not require a cage to keep humans away from them for the humans’ protection. And Sawyer was the first modern industrial robot which finally got away from having a computer like language to control it, as all robots had since the idea was first developed at the Stanford AI Lab back in the very early seventies.
There is still a lot remaining to be done.
1I had written a really quite abysmal master’s thesis in machine learning in 1977 in Adelaide, Australia. Somehow, through an enormous stroke of luck I was accepted as one of twenty PhD students in the entering class in Computer Science at Stanford University in 1977. I showed up for my first day of classes on September 26th, 1977, and that day I was also one of three new students (only three that whole year!!) to start as research assistants at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL). At that time the lab was high above the campus on Arastradero Road, in a wooden circular arc building known as the D. C. Power Building. It has since been replaced by a horse ranch. [And there never was an A. C. Power Building at Stanford…] It was an amazing place with email, and video games, and computer graphics, and a laser printer, and robots, and searchable news stories scraped continuously from the two wire services, and digital audio at every desk, and a vending machine that emailed you a monthly bill, and a network connected to about 10 computers elsewhere in the world, all in 1977. It was a time machine that only traveled forwards.
I was a graduate student at SAIL until June 1981, then a post-doc in the Computer Science Department at Carnegie Mellon University for the summer, and then I joined the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory for two years. In September 1983 I was back at Stanford as a Computer Science faculty member, where I stayed for one year, before joining the faculty of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department back at MIT, where I was again a member of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. I became the third director of the lab in 1997, and in 2003 I became director of a new lab at MIT formed by joining the AI Lab and the Lab for Computer Science: CSAIL, the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab. It was then and remains now the largest single laboratory at MIT, now with well over 1,000 members. I stepped down as director in 2007, and remained at MIT until 2010.
All the while, beginning in 1984, I have started six AI and robotics companies in Boston and Palo Alto. Total time where I have not been part of any startups since 1984 is about six months.
2Sometimes I was their junior colleague, and at times I became their “manager” on org charts which bore no relation at all to what happened on the ground. I also met countless other well known people in the field at conferences or when I or they visited each other’s institutions and companies.
3I often used to sit next to Doug Ross at computer science faculty lunches at MIT on Thursdays throughout the eighties and nineties. We would chat amiably, but I must admit that at the time I did not know of his role in developing automation! What a callow youth I was.
4I met Joe Engelberger many times, but he never seemed to quite approve of my approach to robotics, so I can not say that we had a warm relationship. I regret that today, and I should have tried harder.
5Ken Olsen left MIT to found DEC in 1957, based on his invention of the minicomputer. DEC built a series of computers with names in sequence PDP-1, PDP-2, etc, for Programmed Data Processor. The PDP-6 and PDP-10 were 36 bit mainframes. The PDP-7 was an eighteen bit machine upon which UNIX and the C language were developed at Bell Labs. The PDP-8, a 12 bit machine, was cheap enough to bring computation into individual’s research labs, and the smaller successor the PDP-11 really became the workhorse small computer before the microprocessor was invented and developed. Ken lived in a small (by population size) town, Lincoln, on the route between Lexington and Concord that was taken on that fateful day back in 1775. I also lived in that town for many years and some Saturday mornings we would bump into each other at the checkout line of the town’s only grocery store, Donelan’s. Often Ken would be annoyed about something going on at MIT, and he never failed to explain to me his position on whatever it happened to be. I wish I had developed a strategy of asking him questions about the early days of DEC to divert his attention.
6For many years at MIT I took the Vicarm, that Victor had left behind, to class once a year when I would talk about arm kinematics. I used it as a visual prop for explaining forward kinematics, and the need for backward kinematics. I never once thought to take a photograph of it. Drat!!!